As Kidd indicates, theoretical foundations find expression in the variety of models which are put forward for use in one to one career helping conversations. On this course we have deliberately chosen not to teach one model, but to encourage theoretical integration and reflective practice so that learners can make sense of these for themselves and select approaches appropriate for their context.

The table below summarises a selection of models taken from the career guidance and coaching literature. Most are process models and offer an approach to the structure of a one to one interaction. The final one can be described as an outcome model, in that it offers a range of factors to consider as outcomes of an interaction, rather than a process by which to get there.

Models place a different emphasis on aspects of the interaction. For example Ali and Graham place considerable emphasis on the contract for the interaction. GROW (the basis for the silent coaching exercise on the teaching days) focuses client's on goals.

A chapter from the Egan text summarising the skilled helper model (chapter 3) is available here in two parts:

Part One

Part Two



Pick 2 examples to follow up using the reading list. Please compare and contrast each of them and consider in relation to the earlier materials. What are their strengths and weaknesses? How applicable are they in your context? For example, If your career conversations are informal, any process model might impose an artificial structure. If your clients struggle to articulate goals, the GROW model might assume too much input to the process from the client.