Theory and practice
This module is designed to help you integrate career development theories within your practice. To assist with this task, we will make links between theory and practice throughout the module. We will invite you to experiment with these and to construct your own approach to thinking about career. The terms theory and practice are often contrasted in everyday speech; however, it is important to acknowledge that there is always a theory, or theories, present in our practice. We apply and enact theories in our professional practices, and indeed in our day-to-day lives, as a matter of course. Moreover, the creation of academic journal articles, books and conference speeches are also practices. The publication of an article and the delivery of a talk are all forms of action. What is being highlighted here is a more nuanced treatment of theory and practice. Theories are present in common sense explanations of the world and may be unconscious or tacit ideas and beliefs that inform our actions. Practices encompass a wide range of actions including thinking, writing and speaking. It is for this reason that the focus of this course is on the integration of theory and practice.

So, when discussing theory and practice, it can be useful to bring our theories to the surface - to make them manifest and explicit so that we can examine them and understand their implications. The following exercise is designed to help with this.

Exercise: your 'theory' of career development
Think back over your own career to date. How would you describe what has happened over the years? Once you have recollected, find some way of presenting your career on one side of an A4 page - use any combination of words, diagrams, drawings, pictures, images, etc.

Once you have done this, look carefully at what you have produced. What have you focused on? Have you emphasised any of the following factors: decision-making, the influence of particular people, your values and beliefs, your skills and abilities, your experience of change and development over time?

Of course, all of these factors are significant in career development - indeed, there are career theories associated to each and every one of them.

Identifying gaps in what we know
One of the most important uses of career development theories lies in identifying gaps in what we know about ourselves and others. For example, they can help us understand the roles that an individual occupies and the reasons for this. This use of theory - the identification of gaps - will be used throughout the module.

Triangulation
The module will introduce you to a range of career development theories. It is important to note that here, and throughout the course, we encourage theoretical triangulation i.e. engaging with a person's career from different theoretical perspectives. Used carefully in combination, these interpretations can take us closer to a person by helping us explore his or her career more fully and the various directions it might take. This is, in turn, a step towards integrating theory and practice and synthesising one's own distinctive approach.

Similarities and differences
You will find that, in addition to the obvious differences, there are many similarities to be found amongst career development theories. These differences and similarities are important aids to practice and you are encouraged to make notes on these as you move through the materials.

Career literacy
Career coaches should be skilled at reading and interpreting their own career development and the career development of their clients. This demands a very specific way of using career development theories to engage in multiple readings of career. This career literacy can be enabled by developing familiarity with key concepts derived from career development theories to enhance the vocabulary one uses to understand and discuss career development. Thus equipped, the career coach is able to understand both surface and below-the-surface narratives of career. This entails using career development theories, not as a distancing mechanism, but to understand people more deeply, more fully and more wholly. One of the central benefits of using career development theories in this way is to get a better feel for one’s own career beliefs and those of the client. A high level of career literacy, therefore, drawing from a range of career development theories, represents part of the distinctive and specialist knowledge base of the career coach.

Different types of career development theories
There are two main types of career development theories discussed in this module. Firstly, there are theories that explain or describe our career development. Secondly, there are theories concerned with aspirational claims about what people should do to improve their own career development and help others do so. We will initially focus on the first type because the second type is usually informed by the first. More detail is provided on the second type in the section entitled 'Additional definitions, disciplines and perspectives'. Both types can be used to enhance our career literacy i.e. our ability to 'read' the career development of self and others.

Key concepts
As indicated above, a particular feature of the teaching is the identification and use of key concepts. These will be clearly shown in each presentation and their creative use modelled and encouraged. This will be explained further in the first presentation entitled 'Introductory Framework' and it is to this that we will now turn......