It would be remiss to study career and vocation without paying attention to perspectives that emphasise stuctural influences on career development particularly in relation to work and education. In some respects, these act as a corrective to highly idealising or naive conceptions of self-fulfilment and work. Roberts (1977, 2009) provides an exemplar of this approach. He writes 'vocational guidance cannot make jobs more rewarding, nor create employment opportunities for personal growth and development' (1977: 6).

Class, gender & ethnicity
We have included two readings from Roberts who focuses particularly on socio-economic class. We have also included some extracts from Harralambos & Holborn (2008) that provide wider data on the relationship between class, gender, ethnicity and education and work.

Please now read Roberts (1977 & 2009) and Harralambos & Holborn (2008).